Romanian Journal of Biology - Plant Biology
Volume 55, No. 1, 2010
1. Diuretic activitiy of methanolic extract of leaves of Salvadora persica L
Bhadoriya U., Suthar A., Dubey S., Aggarwal N.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic effect of methanolic extract of the dried leaves ofSalvadora persica in normal rats. Methanolic extract of Salvadora persica leaves was administered to experimental rats orally at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg p.o. Hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg) was used as positive control in the study. The diuretic effect of the extract was evaluated by measuring urine volume & sodium and potassium content. Urine volume was significantly increased by methanolic extract in comparison to the control group, while the excretion of sodium was also increased by extract. The methanolic extract had the additional advantage of a potassium-conserving effect. We can conclude that methanolic extract of Salvadora persica produced notable diuretic effect which appeared to be comparable to that produced by the reference diuretic HCTZ (Hydrochlorothiazide). The present study provides a quantitative basis for explaining the folkloric use of Salvadora persica as a diuretic agent.
2. Anti-inflammatory screening of Jatropha curcas root, stem and leaf in albino rats
Nayak B.S., Patel K.N.
Anti-inflammatory activity of Jatropha curcas L. alcoholic extract of root, stem and leaf was confirmed in Albino rats. The alcoholic extract of root, stem and leaf exhibited systemic and significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. From all the alcoholic extracts, the root showed significant reduction in percentage of inflammation over the other alcoholic extracts. It is evident that, in the phasic phenomenon, first inflammatory mediators i.e. histamine and serotonin releases at 0–2 hr contribute to inflammation antagonized by the alcoholic extract of root (70%), stem (42.5%) and leaf (50%). Kinin release in the second phase at the 3rd hr. is also called plateau phase that was inhibited significantly by the alcoholic extract of root (80.64%), stem (45.16%) and leaf (54. 83%). Prostaglandin released as third phase. At 4th hr, all the alcoholic extracts showed significant inflammatory effects but lesser as compared to standard.
3. In-vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging studies of alcoholic extract of Medicago sativa L
RANA M. G., KATBAMNA R. V., PADHYA A. A., DUDHREJIYA A. D., JIVANI N.P., SHETH N.R.
Free radicals are implicated for many diseases including diabetes mellitus, arthritis, cancer, ageing.etc. In the treatment of these diseases, antioxidant therapy has gained utmost importance. Alcoholic extract of Medicago sativa was studied for its in vitro antioxidant activity using different models viz. DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, iron chelating activity, lipid peroxidation assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, and alkaline DMSO assay. The results were analyzed statistically by the regression method. Its antioxidant activity was estimated by IC50 value and the values are 100.38 μg/ml (DPPH radical scavenging), 12.33 μg/ml (ABTS radical scavenging), 115.79 μg/ml (Iron chelating activity) and 49.06 μg/ml (lipid peroxidation), 21.77 μg/ml (nitric oxide scavenging) and 15.91 μg/ml (alkaline DMSO). In all the testing, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals, metal chelation or inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant property may be related to the polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract. These results clearly indicate that Medicago sativa is effective against free radical mediated disease.
4. Screening of Lagenaria siceraria fruits for its analgesic activity
Shah B.N., Seth A. K.
The present study was taken to give the scientific validation of folklore medicinal use ofLagenaria siceraria. The analgesic activity of methanolic and aqueous extract of fruit of Lagenaria siceraria was evaluated using the tail immersion method in rats. The rats were evaluated for the pain threshold at a different interval of time up to 180 minutes. The methanolic extract shows a moderate activity at 180 min (3.97 ± 0.013) while aqueous extract shows a significant activity at 180 min (5.81 ± 0.006). The results support the traditional use of this plant in some painful and inflammatory conditions.
5. In vivo and in vitro comparative ultrastructural studies of the Ruscus aculeatus L. phylloclade cells
Brezeanu A., Banciu C.
A comparative study of the Ruscus aculeatus phylloclade cells structure and ultrastructure of plants belonging to the native habitat and in vitro culture are presented in the paper in order to establish an adequate protocol for ex situ conservation. In our experimental conditions no anomaly of the phylloclade cells ultrastructure has been observed. Some interesting modifications appeared at the plastidial system that are polymorphic as well as at plastoglobuli level that could represent adaptative modifications, but not genetic alterations. The in vitro experimental protocol, previously established by us for in vitro propagation that requires plants indirect regeneration, via callus, on the MS basal nutritive medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA and 5 mg/l BAP may be considered an adequate possibility for medium-term conservation of this species.
6. Rhythmobiochemistry: modifications in photoassimilating pigments rhythms by pollution
The diurnal biorhythms of the photoassimilating pigments from the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Bréb. and their modifications produced by lacticum acid in laboratory experiments were recorded. The results confirmed the hypothesis of the “biochemical key times” existence, and as a new biological concept is proposed the “biological times hierarchy” in biosystems. Rhythmobiochemical knowledge may explain certain aspects presenting a main importance for the Ecochronotoxicology development.
7.Axenic culture of a diazotrophic filamentous Cyanobacterium isolated from mesothermal sulphurous springs (Obanul Mare - Mangalia)
Sarchizian I., Ardelean I.I.
Isolation and purification of cyanobacteria from ecosystems is needed to obtain cultures of cyanobacteria which can be of use for laboratory studies in fundamental and applicative research, and to improve the knowledge concerning microbiota of the given ecosystem. This study presents the results concerning the purification in axenic culture of a diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium isolated from sulphurous mesothermal spring. The purification of cyanobacteria has been done by the use of antibiotic treatment, with special emphasis on the timing between organic nutrients addition and antibiotic addition.
8.Marine Bacterioplancton density dynamics in microcosms supplemented with gasoline
Ghiþã S., Ardelean I.I.
Dynamics of bacterial cell density in microcosms supplemented with gasoline evolved differently as compared with the control, emphasizing the role of gasoline on the dynamics of bacterial cell density. In supplemented microcosms, but not in the control, an association containing both organo- and phototrophic microorganisms developed that appear to be an important change in microbiota as a result of gasoline presence.
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