Romanian Journal of Biology - Plant Biology

ROMANIAN ACADEMY
Institute of Biology - Bucharest


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Volume 57, No. 2, 2012

1. GHEORGHE ZARNEA (1920–2012) Member of the Romanian Academy In memoriam

pp. 81 - 85   

C. TOMA, A.BREZEANU

2. Effect of EMS on genetic parameters and selection scope for yield attributes in M2 mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes

pp. 87 - 98   

R. ROYCHOWDHURY, S. DATTA, M. HAQUE, T.K. MUKHERJEE, D. MAJI, P. GUPTA, D. DAS, JAGATPATI TAH

In the present study, seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek), a self-fertilized pulse crop, were treated with four doses (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8% as w/v) of EMS to analyze the genetic variability and heritability for the studied attributes like plant height, days to flowering, pods/plant, seeds/pods and seed yield/plant in second mutant (M2) generation. Significant increase in mean values of the studied traits was noticed in mutants. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed highly significant (P < 0.01) differences among the characters, indicating the presence of substantial genetic variability, which was higher in treated population than in the control. In general, the phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than its genotypic counterpart (GCV) for all the studied characters. The highest GCV (0.537) for seeds/pods and highest PCV (0.635) for plant height were recorded in 0.4% EMS treatment. The lowest GCV (0.179) and PCV (0.214) were recorded in control for pods/plant. Highest broad sense heritability estimate (92.33%) was observed with 0.4% EMS for plant height. The expected genetic advance was high (42.39%) with the same treatment for days to flowering. The lowest heritability (38.43) and genetic advance (5.37) were noticed in control for seed yield/plant. EMS at 0.4% and 0.6% concentration gave the maximum values of all the genetic parameters. The increased genetic variability in treated population for these traits has a high scope for selection and can be exploited for the further improvement of mungbean.

3. Estimation of genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in aromatic fine grain rice

pp. 99 - 104   

A.K. CHAURASIA, PRASHANT KUMAR RAI, ARVIND KUMAR

A study on genotypes was conducted in Randomized Block Design in three replications under rainy condition during 2010. The data were recorded for 15 qualitative characters viz., days to 50% flowering, number of tillers per hill, number of panicles per m2, number of spikelets per panicles, panicles length, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, plantheight, days to maturity, grain yield per plant, grain yield per plot, biological yield, harvest index and test weight to study genetics variability, heritability and genetic advance. Analysis of variance among 41 genotypes showed highly significant differences for yield contributing traits viz., number of panicles per m2, plant height, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, biological yield harvest index, number of spikelets per panicles. Grain yield per plant, panicles length, flag leaf length, number of panicles per hill, number of tillers per hill, test weight grain yield per plot and flag leaf width indicated the presence as substantial amount of genetic variability in study material and there is scope for selection. On the basis of mean performance yield traits it was conducted that “NDR-9542” was best performer for yield. The results showed higher GCV and PCV in parameters like grain yield per plot, flag leaf width, biological yield, days to 50% flowering and plant height. Maximum heritability was encountered for characters viz. plant height, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, panicles length and number of panicles per hill. High genetic advance was observed in number of panicles per m2, plant height and days to 50% flowering. Thus these characters could be improved by selection in breeding programme for crop improvement.

4. Using SSR marker to identify the MYMV resistance gene in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

pp. 105 - 113   

A. KARTHIKEYAN, M. SUDHA, P. NAGRAJAN, M. PANDIYAN, M. RAVEENDRAN, N. SENTHIL, K. ANGAPPAN

Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) major disease of mungbean in India as well as in other mungbean growing countries in Asia. In the present investigation Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) and Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) techniques were used to analyse the F2 individuals of susceptible VBN (Gg) 2 resistant KMG 189 to screen and identify the Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) resistant gene in mungbean. Two DNA bulks, namely resistant bulks and susceptible bulks, were setup by pooling equal amount of DNA from five randomly selected plants of each disease response. Parental survey study was carried out by using forty five Azukikibean SSR primers. This study revealed that six SSR markers showed polymorphism between the parents. These six SSR primers were used in the bulk segregant analysis. Out of these six SSR primers, none showed polymorphism between the parents and bulks. These SSR primers can produce polymorphism between parents and are not able to distinguish the bulks. This attributes the fact that these SSR primers are heterologous probes developed in azuki bean which can produce polymorphism between parents and are not able to distinguish the bulks.

5. Induction of drought tolerance with seed priming in wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.)

pp. 115 - 128   

ALIREZA EIVAZI

Delay in planting and low precipitation (< 300mm annual) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) farming is the major problem in the irrigated and rainfall lands of Iran. A factorial experiment for evaluating the effects of seed priming on wheat cultivars was carried out under laboratory, greenhouse and at two field conditions during seasons of 2008-2010. Arrangement of treatments were Zarrin, Shariar, Sardary and Azar cultivars as A factor, and priming treatments including DW, osmotic solutions (10% PEG, 2.5% KCl, 4% MN, 10% Urea, 5% NaCl W/V) and plant growth inducers (20ppm IAA, 1000ppm CCC) with non-primed seed as a control established B factor. At the second year of field conditions two separate experiments were done under drought stress and well watered conditions. Irrigation of drought stress was withheld at booting stage. Maximum amount of absorbed water was related to Shariar, which was 15.5 g at DW. At all cultivars the most increased seed weight was seen for primed seed with CCC and IAA. Irrespective of cultivar seedling related traits revealed that CCC increased plumule and their radical dry weights (11.5 and 8.0mg) and lengths (17.2 and 17.8cm). In opposite, Urea pretreatment had negative effects for seedling growth. All priming treatments at four cultivars increased grain yield and its components, chlorophyll content and nitrogen absorbed under field and green house conditions as compared to control. Primed seed with potassium chloride at drought stress had the low variation percentage for traits of relative water content (–9.3%), total dry matter (–10.7%) and grain yield (–4.0%) than well watered conditions. Potassium chloride improved drought tolerance at all wheat cultivars. There were significant correlations for traits of spike per square meter (0.91**), grain per spike (0.92**) and total dry matter (0.79*) with grain yield. Therefore, it seems that these traits could be used as indirect criteria for selection of high grain yield of cultivars for primed seed.

6. Mitotic index and DNA content as biological tools on detection of mutation in tree species (Jatropha curcas L.)

pp. 129 - 137   

D. DHAKSHANAMOORTHY, R. SELVARAJ

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different doses of gamma rays (5Kr, 10Kr, 15Kr, 20Kr and 25Kr) and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) [1%, 2%, 3% and 4%] on mitotic index and DNA content in Jatropha curcas because these two traits are important in tree species to access the altered genotype in early days itself. In the present study, the mitotic index and DNA content ranged 3.66-0.93 and 1.95-1.35, respectively for gamma rays and EMS treatments. All treatments of gamma rays and EMS showed reduced mitotic index and DNA content when compared to that of control which recorded 29.28 and 2.27 respectively. From the present investigation, we conclude that gamma rays and EMS may change genetic material at molecular level and that result in the altered genotype in J. curcas. To study the growth (flowering and fruiting) and yield parameters in the mutant populations, several mutation generations (M1, M2 …) to be investigated and that is not feasible in J. curcas since it is a perennial tree crop. In this respect, the results of the present study will be useful to access the mutagenic effects in tree species.

7. Pre-dispersal reproductive ecology of Lagotis cashmeriana (Royle) Rupr. (Scrophulariaceae) – an endangered alpine endemic angiosperm of Kashmir Himalaya, India

pp. 139 - 156   

A.R. DAR, ZAFAR RESHI, G.H. DAR, LUBNA ANDLEEB

Lagotis cashmeriana is a self-incompatible, dichogamous herb in alpine habitats of the Kashmir Himalaya with sparsely distributed population. Population density ranged from 10.64 ind. m2 in Harmukh range to 15.6 ind. m2 in Apharwat populations. Most of the individuals remained vegetative and only a small percentage (0.67% to 9.72%) progressed into reproductive phase. Herbivores damaged about 11 to 18% of individuals in different populations. The species exhibited obligate out-breeding nature and its flowers were foraged principally by a Bombus species. While the number of flowers produced per plant was 39.5, but only 10.3 seeds were produced per plant. About 60% of fruits possessed two seeds and 40% enclosed only one seed. Both seeds were filled in only 45% of the two-seeded fruits while in 55% of fruits only one seed was filled and viable. About 55.4% of the pollen mother cells showed abnormal meiosis and mean pollen viability was only 38.1%. Thus, reduced seed set because of abnormal pollen mother cell meiosis, and non-viable pollen together with scarce number of reproductive individuals, low pollinator visitation frequency, hence poor reproductive success contribute to threatened status of this species.

 


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