Romanian Journal of Biology - Zoology
ROMANIAN ACADEMY Institute of Biology - Bucharest
2003, VOLUME 48, 1-2
GENRE TIMARCHA (COLEOPTERA CHRYSOMELIDAE) EN ROUMANIE
AURELIAN LEONARDO ILIE
In this work are presented taxonomical, biological studies and the general distribution of the species of genus Timarcha in Romania
THE DYNAMICS OF FOREST SURFACES INFESTED WITH TORTRIX VIRIDANA AND GEOMETRIDAE SPECIES, BETWEEN 1986-2001
IRINA TEODORESCU, ADAM SIMIONESCU
In this work was analyzed the decreasing of the total surface of forests infested with defoliator lepidopters in Romania, between 1986 and 200 I, to almost a half of the surface registered in 1986. The most of forests exhibited very low, low or medium infestation levels, caused by Tortrix viridana (85 % of the total infested surface) and Geometridae species (96 %). A severe decreasing (about 13 times) in forest surfaces with Lymantria dispar infestation registered.
The geographic distribution of forests infested with Tortrix viridana and Geometridae species in Romania is balanced. Tortrix species slightly predominates in Muntenia, Oltenia. Moldova, while Geometridae. in Transylvania, Banat and Dobrogca.
The defoliator populations control was performed by using especially biological (bacterial. viral. hormonal) control means. inhibitors of insect metamorphosis.
THE MATING FLYING PHENOLOGY OF THE TORTRIX VIRIDANA AND GEOMETRIDAE SPECIES LEPIDOPTERA
ADAM SIMIONESCU, IRINA TEODORESCU
This study presents the results of using pheromon method with Atravir in the case of Tortrix viridana and glue rings placed on tree trunks, in the case of Geometridae species, to establish flying start, flying period, flying dynamics, mean flying duration, high values of flying period, period and duration of maxime flying, autumn≠winter flying and winter-spring flying Geometridae species, outbreak, probable defoliating percent.
In Tortrix viridana, the flying period lasted 20-25 days, from early May to last June. Period of maxime flying were about fifteen days, in last May. The intensive flying occures especially in the first 1-6 days of flying period. The flying dynamics was influenced by the temperature values and precipitations cantities. The flying start was delayed and it lasted longer in the North forests, with a colder climate. In southern zones was early, but cold precipitations prolonged the flying period. Tortrix viridana develop some outbreaks in the forests of Muntenia and Oltenia Subcarpathian hills and plain, Moldova plateau and hills. The defoliation percent was estimated to be between 36-70 % in 29 % of the investigated zones.
Among Geometridae with autumn-winter flying (46 days in mean, especially in October-November, with maximum fly in 15-30 November), dominant species was Operophthera brllmata. Period of maxime flying was 10-15 days, in November. Among Geometridae with winter-spring flying (28 days in mean, especially in February≠March, with maximum fly in the day in which the flying starts and in the following 5 days), dominant species was Erannis leucophaearia.
STRUCTURAL INDEXES OF GASTROPODS POPULATIONS WITHIN SMALL RESERVOIRS FROM THE OLTENIA PLAIN
The researches made within some small reservoirs located in the Oltenia Plain emphasized the characteristics of the biocoenosis, an important role being played by the Gastropods populations. The structure of the Gastropods populations acquires certain peculiarities characteristic to each reservoir and reflccted by the structural parameters of the populations belonging to this group.Thus, there have been calculated and established the following parameters: frequency, constancy, relative abundance, affinity, diversity and equitability.
THE PLANKTON BIOMASS AND PRODUCTIVITY IN DANUBE DELTA LAKES BEING IN ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
VICTOR ZINEVICI, DOINA IONICĂ, LAURA PARPALĂ, CRISTINA SANDU, NICOLAE NICOLESCU
The researches were carried out in 1999-200 I period, in two Danube Delta shallow lakes being in different succession stages: Roşu and Tătaru. The first one is among the youngest lakes (from ecological succession point of view), the second one is in the small pool stage. The energy equivalent mean of organic matter was 179.53 kcal/m3. 56.41% of this value was represented by DOM (dissolved organic matter) and 43.59% by POM (particled organic matter). Of 78.25 kcal/m3, which represented the POM equivalent, 78.82% was tripton and 21.28% plankton. So, the plankton represented only 9.27% of the energy equivalent of water organic matter. The phytoplankton represented 87.10% of the biomass caloric equivalent of plankton trophic pyramid, while the zooplankton represented 6.56% and the bacterioplankton 6.34%. The phytoplankton represented 49.41 %, the zooplankton only 0.90% and bacterioplankton 49.69% of total productivity. The phytoplankton proportion in caloric equivalent of plankton biomass and productivity decreased in the succession process of Danube Delta lacustrian ecosystems (91.50% → 78.36%, respectively 50.55% → 47.50%), in inverse correlation with the zooplankton proportion (5.90% → 7.88%, respectively 0.69% → 1.25%) and bacterioplankton one (2.60% → 13.76%, respectively 48.76% → 51.25%).
OLIGOCHAETA IN THE LOWER RIVER DANUBE
Percentage of the Oligochaeta community within the benthic fauna, its species richness, composition and abundances in the lower Danube River were studied during 1992≠1993. Among the 13 species of Oligochaeta identified three to four tubificid species represent over 90% of both total number and biomass of the benthic fauna. The other species were rare having occurrence frequencies less than 20% and abundances frequently less than 50 individuals mł.
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF LENTIC TERRESTRIAL ECOTONES OF DANUBE DELTA
Lentic ecotones play an important role as coupling zones between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They have specific physical and chemical characteristics, and also unique plant and animal communities. Ecotone size and configuration depend on shore slope and water level fluctuations, on depositional and erosion processes. Most of the organic matter produced or accumulated in lentic ecotones is utilized "in situ". The vegetation can play an important role in removing nutrients from the substrate and groundwater (2). The paper presents a physico-chemical characterization of two ecotonal zones of Danube Delta, during floods, in the spring of 2000-2002 period. Lentic-terrestrial ecotones were studied in comparison with the adjacent aquatic ecosystems, in order to evidence the differences between them.
NEAR-SHORE POLYCHAETA ASSEMBLAGES OF THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA COAST
The shallow-water polychaete assemblages of sandy and rocky substrata were analysed at 8 sites situated along the southern part of the Romanian Black Sea in August 1998 and August 1999. During the study 21 species were identified. On sandy bottom Spio filicornis had the highest abundance and Neanthes succinea possessed the highest biomass value. The most abundant species on hard bottom were Pseudobrania clavata, Neanthes succinea, Polydora cf. ciliata and Fabricia stellaris stellaris, respectively. Uni- and multivariate analysis suggest that pollution is the main factor affecting the distribution of polychaetes in the Romanian coast.
ENCEPHALON CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME LEUCISCINAE SPECIES (PISCES, CYPRINIDAE)
The present paper aims at comparatively rendering the main peculiarities of the encephalon at some species belonging to the Leuciscinae subfamily: Alburnus albumus, Hypophthalmiehthys molitrix, Peleeus eultratus, Ruti/us rutUus, Rhiniehthys atratu/us, R. eataraetae, R. ehrysogaster, R. oseu/us with two subspecies: R. o. klamathensis and R. o. robustus. At the level of each vesicle, there 'can be noticed great variations, both intraspecific and interspecific, regarding their aspect, according to the length of their body, life way and environment. From a morphological point of view, the encephalon of the studied species belongs to 3 main groups: basic (primary) cyprinid, chemosensory and octavolateralis. At the studied species, the variability of the encephalon divisions and subdivisions is low and mean, oscillating between normal parameters.
EPIDERMAL ULTRASTRUCTURE OF PADDLEFISH, POLYODON SPATHULA
OTILIA ZARNESCU, LOTUS MEŞTER
The epidermis ultrastructure of the paddlefish (Po/yodon spathula) is reported for the first time in the literature.
It has been shown that the epidermis is composed only from epithelial cells associated through desmosomes by many bundles of tonofilaments.
There were not observed differentiated mucous gland cells as in other fish species. Towards the surface, the epithelial cells became flattened, with many vacuoles and desmosomes.
Intrusing cells are of two types: melanophores and phagocytic leucocytes. The leucocytes are present at any level of the epidermis and could be exposed at the surface of damaged skin. The function of eosinophilic leucocytes in fish skin was not clearly elucidated, though in salmonids is associated with ectoparasite species.
STRUCTURAL PECULIARITIES OF THE IMMATURE HUMAN EXTRAEMBRYONIC MEMBRANES
MARINELA FLĂM¬NZEANU, AURELIA TUFAN, LUCIA MOLDOVAN, MARIA CALOIANU
The aim of this study was to outline the particular aspects of immature human extraembryonic membranes by light and electron microscopy. The space between amniotic and chorionic connective tissue of free fetal membranes, the presence of both syncytio- and cytotrophoblast on the surface of the chorionic villi as well as the occurrence of vitello intestinal duct, resembling with small intestine, are few specific features of human embryonic annexes in early stages of gestation. Histochemical evidence of the collagen and immunohistochemical location of chondroitin sulfate (CS) demonstrated the high synthesis activity of the connective cells from extraembryonic membranes at 8-10 weeks of pregnancy.
ULTRASTRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN MITOCHONDRIA INDUCED BY HEAVY WATER IN VITRO
WANDA BUZGARLU, OTILIA ZĂRNESCU, MARIA CALOIANU, VIORICA COROIU, GH. TITESCU, I. ŞTEFANESCU
To study the cell behavior in the presence of heavy water, investigations were carried out concerning changes of mitochondria in CHO, Hep 2 and fibroblast cells cultivated in media with various 020 concentrations (20%, 65% and 90%) by electron microscopy and MTT assay. Heavy water in the culture medium caused a decrease in the tetrazolium salt conversion into formazan compared with the control, but in a different way than the cell number decreased. At ultrastructural level, the observed changes were dependent on heavy water concentrations in the culture medium and on the exposed cell type. In the case of Hep 2 cells, at 65% 020, there were identified swollen mitochondria exhibiting a dense matrix and broken mitochondrial membranes. At 90% 020 concentration, these changes were much more obvious, mitochondrial cristae being disorganized and dilated, a reduction in mitochondrial matrix being noticed compared to the previous case. At an exposure to 20% 020 concentration, CHO cells exhibited a morphological polymorphism of mitochondria, with a lower degree of cristae disorganization and the appearance of some intramitochondrial vacuoles. At 90% 020, their alteration was more intense, the cells exhibiting mitochondria with different matrix density and cristae disorganization. At 65% 020, fibroblast cells show some very long mitochondria, which might arise by fusion of mitochondria of normal size. At 90% 020, one may notice the disruption of mitochondrial membranes and the release of mitochondrial content into cytoplasm.
INVESTIGATIONS ON THE ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY OF SOME INTERNAL ORGANS OF THREE PLATYBUNUS SPECIES (ARACHNIDA, OPILIONIDA)
ANDA BĂBĂLEAN, VIORICA MANOLACHE, MARIA NĂSTĂSESCU
The paper presents some anatomical and histological aspects of the following organs for three Platybunus species: alimentary canal - pharynx, oesophagus, midgut of Platybunus pinetorum (C.L.Koch) 1839, Platybunus pallidus Silhavy 1938 and Platybunus jeporum Avram 1968; brain of Platybunus pinetorum (C.L.Koch) 1839; eye of Platybunus pinetorum (C.L.Koch) 1839; internal and external male genitals of Platybunus pinetorum (C.L.Koch) 1839 and Platybunus jeporum Avram 1968 and excretory system of Platybunus jeporum Avram 1968.
STRUCTURAL CHANGES CAUSED BY INSECTICIDES ACTION UPON THE FEMALE AND MALE GENITAL SYSTEM OF BOTHYNODERES PUNCTIVENTRIS GERM. (COLEPOTERA CURCULIONIDAE)
Female and mall genital systems of Bothynoderes punctiventris were maintained for 4-24 h in the insect haemolymph to which there have been added either Lindan or Furadan 10 insecticides in 0.05% and 0.1 % doses.
Structural changes were more strong in ovaries as compared to testis. Alterations were found particularly in follicular cells, but in oocytes as well. Due to its sensitivity, the follicular epithelium represents a sensitive, selective barrier for the oocyte.
In 0.1 % dose the insecticides affect the insect reproduction.
STRUCTURAL AND GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY CHANGES INDUCED BY MANGANESE ACUTE INTOXICATION IN CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO
ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU, CRISTINA MUNTEANU, MIOARA COSTACHE, EMILIA MANOLE, LOTUS-ELENA MEŞTER, C. TESIO, ELENA IONICĂ, MARIETA COSTACHE, ANCA DINISCHIOTU
Manganese, an element widely distributed on earth, is a micronutrient, but elevated concentrations could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Mn (II) is a scavenger of superoxide radical and activates a variety of enzymes, but prolonged Mn (II) exposure induces the formation of reactive oxygen species leading to impairment of antioxidant system. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyses the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, generating NADPH, is known as a sensitive target to oxidative stress. After acute exposure to 0.5 mg Mn2+/l Carassius auratus gibelio developed specific adaptative responses for each tissue, neutralizing oxidative stress. Because the epithelial layer of kidney, intestine and gill are in direct contact with the pollutant, the necessity of reduced glutathione and NADPH increases and the histochemical reaction for G6PDH is higher in the epithelial layer than in other tissues The pollutant triggers, a response soon after the beginning of exposure. Significant effects were noticed on the main tissues involved in the detoxication processes. In liver, kidney and ovary the main pollutant target were the nuclei. These structural changes consisting in karyomegaly, anisokary, pycnosis prove that the metal ion has a deep effect on the nuclear genetic material. The increase of previtellogenic and vitellogenic follicles atresia after manganese acute exposure affects the sexual cells quality, functions and fish reproduction efficiency.
H.J. DUMONT & S.Y. NEGREA: Introduction to the Class Branchiopoda. Guides to the identification of the microinvertebrates of the continental waters of the world: 19. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, 2002, pp. 1-398.
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